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# Price to book ratio

Price-to-book value (P/B) is the ratio of the market value of a company's shares (share price) over its book value of equity. The book value of equity, in turn, is the value of a company's assets.. The price-to-book ratio, or P/B ratio, is a financial ratio used to compare a company's current market value to its book value (where book value is the value of all assets owned by a company). The calculation can be performed in two ways, but the result should be the same The Market to Book ratio (also called the Price to Book ratio), is a financial valuation metric used to evaluate a company's current market value relative to its book value. The market value is the current stock price of all outstanding shares (i.e. the price that the market believes the company is worth)

### Using the Price-To-Book (P/B) Ratio to Evaluate Companie

Defining Price-To-Book Ratio Simply put, the price-to-book ratio, or P/B ratio, is a financial ratio used to compare a company's current market price to the book value. It is also sometimes known as a market-to-book ratio. The idea behind value investing—in the long-term—is to find the market sleepers Price to Book Ratio or P/B Ratio is used to determine the valuation of the company with respect to its balance sheet strength. It is calculated by one of the following two methods: 1. Price/Book Value = Total Market Capitalization / Total Book Valu The price-to-book ratio (P/B) is one way to evaluate a stock's value, something that may be important if you're looking for ones that are undervalued to invest in The price to book ratio, also known as the market to book ratio, is a financial ratio that helps us determine if the stock of a company is overvalued or undervalued. Also known as the P/B ratio, it compares the market and book value of the company

The table below lists the historical price-to-book (P/B) ratios by sector, calculated using the 500 largest US companies.It's important to remember that the valuations of different sectors can't be compared directly with each other using the price-to-book ratio Price/Book Ratio. Price-FCF Ratio. Net Worth. For a detailed definition, formula and example for Price/Book Ratio, check out our new background page here. Historical price to book ratio values for Nasdaq (NDAQ) over the last 10 years. The current price to book ratio for Nasdaq as of April 21, 2021 is 4.07

### P/B ratio - Wikipedi

• Historical price to book ratio values for AT&T (T) over the last 10 years. The current price to book ratio for AT&T as of April 16, 2021 is 1.19. Please refer to the Stock Price Adjustment Guide for more information on our historical prices
• The price to book ratio, also called the P/B or market to book ratio, is a financial valuation tool used to evaluate whether the stock a company is over or undervalued by comparing the price of all outstanding shares with the net assets of the company
• The price-to-book (P/B) ratio is widely associated with value investing. Like the price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio, a low P/B ratio isn't always indicative of an undervalued company. Conversely,..
• us any liabilities. This can be useful.
• As mentioned previously, the Price-to-book ratio is utilised by value investors to ferret out company stocks that are undervalued. It portrays the relationship between what the market perceives the value of a company's equity to be and the actual book value of its equity. It is, thus, a considerable agency for value investing
• One of the metrics value investors use to test this value is the Price to Book or P/B Ratio. This metric looks at the value the market currently places on the stock, as shown by its stock price, relative to the company's book value. Book value equates to the amount of Shareholders' Equity shown on a company's balance sheet
• The price-to-book ratio expresses a company's stock share price in relation to its book value per share (BVPS). Book value refers to a company's intrinsic, financial worth — specifically, the..

Likewise, we can calculate Forward Price to Book Value ratio of AAA Bank. AAA 2016 estimated Book Value is \$400.0, and its current price is \$234. Forward P/B Ratio = \$234 / \$400 = \$0.6x S ome of the things to consider regarding the Historical and Forward Price to Book Value Ratio price-to-book ratio. of around 2.8 right now. more_vert. open_in_new Länk till källa. warning Anmäl ett fel. The corporation devours on a. price-to-book ratio. of 0.99, revealing its asset value weighed up against the market price of its stock. Mera chevron_right Citigroup Price to Book Value Ratio (2014) = \$73.27/71.57 = 1.023x Citigroup Price to Book Value Ratio (2015) = \$73.27/68.174 = 1.074x; Uses. First of all, when an investor decides to invest in the company, she needs to know how much she needs to pay for a share of the net asset value per share

The Price To Book Ratio, Or P/B Ratio, Is A Financial Ratio Used To Compare A Company's Current Market Value To Its Book Value.. Price to Book Ratio Definition. The price to book ratio (P/B ratio) is a financial ratio used to compare a company's book value to its current market price. It is calculated by dividing the current closing price of the stock by the latest quarter's book value per share. The lower the price to book ratio, the better the value. The price to. The Price to Book ratio, also known at the P/B ratio or just PB ratio, is a way to value a stock by looking at its book value. The book value of a stock is e.. Industry Name: Number of firms: PBV: ROE: EV/ Invested Capital: ROIC: Advertising: 61: 5.73: 2.93%: 7.01: 51.51%: Aerospace/Defense: 72: 4.44: 8.54%: 4.24: 19.11%. The price-to-book (P/B) ratio is a valuation metric that's commonly used to value asset-heavy companies. Such companies include real estate investment trusts (REITs) , banks , and utilities. If a particular company is asset-light, such as technology companies, it would be better to use other valuation metrics, such as price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio , to value it

### Market to Book Ratio (Price to Book) - Formula, Examples

1. Price to book ratio (also called market to book ratio) is a relative valuation statistic which measures the proportion of the current market price of a share of a company's common stock to the book value per share of the company. Accounting Toggle Dropdown. Finance Economics Audit Management Computers Statistics
2. d. P/B Ratio is explained very simply in this video and I.
3. e the average PB ratio based on its trading history. The stock is considered undervalued if it is trading below its average PB ratio
4. Price-to-Book Ratio: A Guide for Investors | SmartAsset.com Price to book ratio can be a helpful tool in spotting undervalued stocks. Learn how price to book ratio works and how to find it when comparing investments

### Understanding the Value of Price-To-Book Rati

One of the most classic metrics to value a stock is the Price-to-Book Ratio or PB ratio in short. Price is referring to the share price of the stock. Book refers to the book value of a company. It is also known as Net Asset Value (NAV) or shareholders' equity The price-to-book ratio expresses a company's stock share price in relation to its book value per share (BVPS). Book value refers to a company's intrinsic, financial worth â€ specifically, the difference between all its assets and all its expenses and debts When an analyst estimates the share price of a company, he can benefit from handful of multiples. The enterprise value to EBITDA (EV/EBITDA), the price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio, the price-to-book (P/B) ratio, the price-to-sales (P/S) ratio, price-to-cash flow (P/CF) are some of them. Each of them has advantages and disadvantages Why the price-to-book value ratio's the most used valuation By Saul Perez. Oct. 29 2019, Updated 8:44 p.m. E

### What is Price to Book Ratio (P/B)? What is a Good Price to

The formula for price-to-book ratio is a simple one: current share price/book value per share. For investors, the book value is a measure of where the company is now, while the market value reflects growth expectations. Generally speaking, when a company is in good shape, market value should exceed book value Determinants of Price to Book Ratios The price-book value ratio can be related to the same fundamentals that determine value in discounted cashflow models. Since this is an equity multiple, we will use an equity discounted cash flow model - the dividend discount model - to explore the determinants Those falling short on both sides had an average price-to-book ratio of 0.31x, while those doing well on asset quality alone commanded 0.72x and those struggling in terms of profitability and efficiency were valued at 0.60x book Price to Book Ratio Definition. Price to book value is a valuation ratio that is measured by stock price / book value per share. The book value is essentially the tangible accounting value of a firm compared to the market value that is shown. Read full definition The price to book ratio compares the current market price of a company's stock to its aggregate book value. When the ratio is excessively high, it can indicate that a company's shares are over-priced, especially when the ratio is high in comparison to the same calculation for other companies in the same industry

### Price-to-Book Ratio: A Guide for Investors - Yaho

• Suppose the market price of a company is Rs 100, Total assets is 200 crores and liabilities are 150 crores and there are 10 crores shares outstanding, then book value per share will be (200-150/10= 5) Then price to book would be 100/5= 20
• Definition - What is Price to Book Value Ratio? The price to book (P/B) value ratio is an important measure that is used to value a company's stock. It compares the market value of a company to the book value of each of its shares
• The price to book ratio (p/b ratio) is calculated by dividing the current share price by its book value per share. by: moneyweek. 17 May 2018. Updated August 2018. Book value is also known as.
• The price-to-book ratio measures a company's market price in relation to its Book Value. The ratio denotes how much equity investors are paying for each dollar in net assets. Some people know it as the price-equity ratio. The price-to-book ratio indicates whether or not a company's asset value is comparable to the market price of its stock
• ed from its balance sheet by taking its total assets and subtracting its total..

p/b, rapporto (price to book ratio) Rapporto tra la capitalizzazione di mercato di un'impresa (numero di azioni per prezzo di una singola azione) e patrimonio netto contabile della stessa, usato per misurare se e quanto un'azienda sia sottovalutata o sopravvalutata dal mercato. Può essere calcolato anche a livello di singola azione, come rapporto tra il prezzo di mercato dell'azione e. How it's calculated The price to book ratio is calculated as - Market value / Book value (or the stock price / Book value per share). The book to market ratio is calculated as - Book value / Market value (or Book value per share / Stock price) The price to book ratio, also known as market to book ratio, measures the relative value of a company compared to its share price.The ratio can also be calculated as total market value over total book value as the per-share part in the equation washes out

### Price to Book Ratio - How to Analyze Stock

The price to book ratio or P/B ratio is a metric that reflects how the market price reflects the current book value of the business shares. The Price to Book ratio measures the number of times the market price of the company's shares exceeds the book value of the business Other than P/E and P/S, the price-to-book ratio (P/B ratio) is also an easy-to-use tool for zeroing in on low-priced stocks that have high-growth prospects

The price to book value can be defined as a market value of a firm's equity divided by the book value of its equity. It is also called market to book ratio. Here's the Price to Book Value Formula - Example of Price to Book Value Formul Price-to-book ratios less than one are common in the case of economic inflation or when there is a poor-performing market. When a firm is overvalued, the price-to-book ratio will be higher than one. Historically, when the economy and stock markets are strong, firms have traded above a price-to-book ratio of two, indicative of the potential that stocks below their current book value carry Price to Book Ratio is a finance function or method used in the context of stock market, often abbreviated as P/B ratio, represents the ratio of market price per share to book value per share to compare an entity's net assets available to common shareholders based on the market price of its stocks. Formula to calculate Price to Book (P/B) Ratio Utilité du Price to book ratio Le Price-to-Book (ratio cours/actif net) est l'un des actifs de valorisation des actions que les analystes jugent le plus utile pour repérer les sociétés sous-valorisées. Ce ratio financier permet de comparer la valeur comptable des actifs de l'entreprise avec son prix de marché boursier

### Price-to-Book (P/B) Ratio by Sector 1979 - 2021 Siblis

• Price-to-book ratios have been unusually low for many banks since the Great Financial Crisis. Ratios below one, in particular, have been seen as reflecting market concerns about banks' health and profitability as well as the need for shifts in business models
• S&P 500 price to book value ratio.. Current price to book ratio is estimated based on current market price and S&P 500 book value as of September, 2020 — the latest reported by S&P. Source: Standard & Poor'
• What is a Price-to-Book Ratio (P/B)? The price-to-book ratio measures a company's market price in relation to its book value. The ratio denotes how much equity investors are paying for each dollar in net assets
• S&P 500 Price to Book Ratio is at a current level of 4.317, up from 4.141 last month and up from 2.918 one year ago. This is a change of 4.25% from last month and 47.91% from one year ago ### Nasdaq Price to Book Ratio 2006-2021 NDAQ MacroTrend

1. Price to Book Ratio Less Than 2, Altman Z Score Greater Than 2.75 (Lower Risk of Bankruptcy), Outstanding Debt Less Equity (Indicator of Safety), and; Return on Invested Capital Greater Than 10% (Remove Companies With Low Quality Growth). The list is sorted by price to book ratios from low to high
2. Understanding Price-to-book Ratio - By Prof. Simply Simple Simply speaking, the Price-to-book ratio (i.e. P/B ratio) is the ratio of Price of a stock to th Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising
3. es how undervalued or overvalued a company stock is on the market. The price to book ratio requires two variables: the market price per dhare and the book value per share. A ratio of less than one means that the company could be undervalued and would provide a better return in the future
4. S&P 500 price to book value ratio. Current price to book ratio is estimated based on current market price and S&P 500 book value as of September, 2020 — the latest reported by S&P. Source: Standard & Poor'
5. The simple price to book ratio calculator to calculate the market to book value ratio. The Market-to-Book Ratio is used by the 'value-based investors' to help to identify undervalued stocks. This P/B ratio indicates the company's ability to create value for its stockholders. It relates the firm's market value per share to its book value per share
6. Price To Book Ratio, often simply referred to as P/B Ratio, can be used to make a comparison between the current market price of a stock and the total book value of all the assets that company has on the balance sheet. The P/B ratio is one of the measures you can use when evaluating the fundamentals a stock

A price to book ratio lower than one can mean the company is undervalued. A price to book ratio of less than 1 suggests that the market is valuing the company at less than the total value of its assets. This means that its shares may currently be undervalued or cheap and therefore present a good buy opportunity The price-to-book ratio, also known as the P/B ratio or market-to-book ratio, is a financial calculation used to compare a company share's current market price to its book value.. The price-to-book ratio tells us whether investors value a company above, at or below the face value of its assets as they appear in its financial reports Mr. Tan is interested to buy over your business for \$ 21 million. So, what does it mean? It means, Mr. Tan is offering you \$2 for every \$1 inside the business. The offer is valued at Price-to-Book (P/B) Ratio of 2.0. As such, P/B Ratio is a tool to compare a stock price with its book value on a per share basis. P/B Ratio

The price-to-book ratio or P/B ratio, sometimes called the market-to-book ratio, is used to calculate how much an investor needs to pay for each dollar of book value of a stock. It is calculated. The Price-To-Book ratio is a way to measure how the stock price of X company is being traded and comparing it to the balance sheets

### AT&T Price to Book Ratio 2006-2020 T MacroTrend

This files below evaluates the price to book ratio analysis with regression analysis and shows how to develop the formula: PB = (ROE-g)/(k-g). It shows how you can use the market to book ratio to compute cost of capital and it demonstrates how a regression equation for the market to book ratio can be used to evaluate the cost of capital The price-to-book (P/B) ratio is widely favored by value investors for identifying low-priced stocks with exceptional returns. The ratio is used to compare a stock's market value/price to its.

### Price to Book Ratio Market to Book Value P/B Formula

Price to book ratio Comment: Price to book ratio for the Retail Sector Retail Sector's current Price to book ratio has increased due to shareprice growth of 8.3 %, from beginning of the first quarter and due to average book value over the trailig twelve month period contraction of -94.93 % sequential, to PB of 10.43, from average the Price to book ratio in the forth quarter of 8.91 The Price to Book Ratio, or P / B Ratio, is a financial ratio used to compare a company's Book Value to its current market price and is a key metric for value investors.This is calculated as the Current Price divided by the latest annual Book Value Per Share. This figure is computed from the latest available interim accounts Many translated example sentences containing price to book ratio - French-English dictionary and search engine for French translations A ratio under one implies that the market is willing to pay less. A price to book value of less than one can imply that the company is not running up to par. This, along with other factors, could also lead to a hostile takeover. Issues with the Price to Book Value Formul

### How to Use the Price-to-Book Ratio The Motley Foo

Additionally, the stock is trading at a price to book ratio of 37.3-times. Tribune, the week's only gainer, saw a 1.3-percent bump, with Friday's last trade at \$9.47 The price-to-book ratio (P/B ratio) is an indicator used to rate a publicly-traded company. The P/B ratio is calculated by dividing the price of a stock by its book value. In order to perform this calculation, the book value of the stock is required De price to book ratio is een belangrijke methode om aandelen te waarderen. Door onder andere deze ratio kan u berekenen of een aandeel duur of goedkoop is

### Using the Price-to-Book Ratio to Analyze Stocks The

Justified Price-to-book multiple. The justified price-to-book multiple or justified P/B multiple is a P/B ratio based on the company's fundamentals. The justified P/B ratio is based on the Gordon Growth Model.It uses the sustainable growth relation and the observation that expected earnings per share equal book value times the return on equity Price to Book (P/B) Value Ratio and Equity Valuation. CFA® Exam, CFA® Exam Level 2, Equity Analysis. This lesson is part 6 of 11 in the course Equity Analysis Part 3. P/B = market price per share / book value per share. Book Value per Share = Common Equity / Common Shares Outstanding What Is Considered a Good Price-To-Book Ratio? Market value has a more significant implication within the sense that it's the worth you have to pay to personal a part of the business regardless of what guide value is acknowledged. Book Value actually means the value of the enterprise according to its books or monetary statements • Undervalued stocks: Trade at price to book ratios below the median for the sector, (2.05), generate returns on equity higher than the sector median (11.82%) and have standard deviations lower than the median (21.93%).! • Overvalued stocks: Trade at price to book ratios above the median for the secto The price-to-book ratio is another ratio used in investing, mostly by value investors. It is one of those indicators they use to determine the value of a stock and how much more of it they can benefit from. This article elucidates the full definition of price-to-book ratio and how one can use it in his investment decisions  ### Price-to-Book (P/B) Ratio - Formula & Interpretation of P

That's why we go the extra mile in ensuring margin of safety in our stock recommendations. Margin of safety can have numerous facets. One of the ways in which investors bring this philosophy to investing is by applying the price-to-book (P/B) ratio. P/B is calculated as the market value of equity divided by the book value of equity Price-to-book ratios have been studied extensively, with some studies suggesting a low price-to-book can lead to a strong stock price rise in the future. There are two caveats:. Price to book (P/B) is one of the oldest metrics in the value investing handbook, and it remains one of the most widely used today. FTSE Russell, one of the largest index providers in the world, uses P/B as its primary metric for distinguishing value stocks from growth stocks. Unfortunately, changes in accounting rules and the types of assets that create value for companies have made P/B a. Price to book ratio Comment: Price to book ratio for the Healthcare Sector Healthcare Sector's current Price to book ratio has decreased due to shareprice contraction of -0.67 %, from beginning of the first quarter and due to the sequtial average book value over the trailig twelve month period contraction of -97.55 %, to PB of 2.48, from average the Price to book ratio in the forth quarter of. The price-to-book ratio (P/B ratio) is a popular valuation ratio. It is calculated by taking the latest stock price and dividing it by book value per share. Book value is simply the total assets found on the balance sheet minus liabilities, which is referred to as common shareholder's equity

### Fundamental Analysis: Understanding Price to Book Rati

Components of Price to Book Ratio (P/BV) Book value is defined as the net asset value of a company, and is calculated by adding up total assets and subtracting liabilities. Book value per share is arrived at by dividing book value by the number of stock shares outstanding ¿Qué es el Price to Book Ratio o PBV? 20 abril, 2014 24 marzo, 2016 Manuel Novalvos Sanz Cultura Financiera. El ratio precio/valor contable, o ratio PBV, es un múltiplo bursátil usado para comparar el precio de mercado actual de una empresa con su valor contable The Market to Book ratio (or Price to Book ratio), is a financial valuation metric used to evaluate a company's current market value relative to its book value. The market value is the current stock price of all outstanding shares, while the book value is the amount that would be left if the company liquidated all of its assets and repaid all of its liabilities How important is price to book ratio? Seem like all the tech stocks have a very high price to book. And all those beaten down covid stocks that haven't recovered are sitting with a nice valuation. Should I just assume price to book is worthless when looking at tech stocks Although price to book ratio still has some utility today, the world has changed since Ben Graham's day. When the market was dominated by capital-intensive firms that owned factories, land, rail track, and inventory -all of which had some objective tangible worth - it made sense to value firms based on their accounting book value

### What Is Price-To-Book Ratio? Definition, Formula, How to

1. The price-to-book ratio (P/B Ratio) is a ratio used to compare a stock's market value to its book value. It is calculated by dividing the current closing price of the stock by the latest quarter's book value per share
2. Price to book ratio Comment: Price to book ratio for the S&P 500 S&P 500's current Price to book ratio has increased due to shareprice growth of 11.56 %, from beginning of the first quarter and due to average book value over the trailig twelve month period contraction of -94.46 % sequential, to PB of 6.86, from average the Price to book ratio in the forth quarter of 4.29
3. The price-to-book ratio (P/B Ratio) is a ratio used to compare a stock's market value to its book value. Find out how this ratio is calculated and how you can use it to evaluate a stock. India's Most Attractive Companies Based on Price to Book Value Ratio
4. PE ratio is calculated as close price of the stock divided by the earnings per share excluding extraordinary items for the most recent financial year. The ratio indicates the number of units of stock price it takes to purchase a single unit of the..
5. On my previous post, I discussed about the advantages and disadvantages of Price to Book ratio. Now let's look at the advantages and disadvantages of Price to Sales ratio First, Advantages: Since the sales revenue is always positive, the price to sales ratio is meaning ful even firm is in distress Sales revenue is no ### Price to Book Value Ratio Guide & Examples of P/B Rati

1. A financial ratio that is used to compare market value of a stock to its book value is called price to book ratio or P/B ratio. The financial ratio is derived by dividing the current closing price.
2. Price to Book Ratio 1.8497. Price to Sales Ratio 1.3990. 1 Year Return 23.19%. 30 Day Avg Volume 697,853,633. EPS 69.50. Dividend--Last Dividend Reported 2.526187. About FTSE 100 Inde
3. Price to Book Value = Current Market Price / Total Assets - Intangible Assets. The value of assets is taken from the most recently published balance sheet. Meaning. The price to book value ratio looks at an immediate liquidation scenario
4. Price/Book Ratio. The price/book (P/B) ratio of a fund is the weighted average of the price/book ratios of all the stocks in a fund's portfolio
5. P/S ratio: An rationale for the P/S ratio is that sales, as the top line in an income statement, are generally less subject to distortion or manipulation than other fundamentals such as EPS or book value. Sales are also more stable than earnings and never negative. Apple Inc.'s P/S ratio increased from 2018 to 2019 and from 2019 to 2020. P/BV.

### PRICE-TO-BOOK RATIO - svensk översättning - bab

1. Microsoft Corp.'s P/S ratio increased from 2018 to 2019 and from 2019 to 2020. P/BV ratio: The P/BV ratio is interpreted as an indicator of market judgment about the relationship between a company's required rate of return and its actual rate of return. Microsoft Corp.'s P/BV ratio increased from 2018 to 2019 and from 2019 to 2020
2. The price-to-book ratio, or P/B ratio, is a financial ratio used to compare a company's current market price to its book value. The price-to-book value ratio , expressed as a multiple (i.e. how many times a company's stock is trading per share compared to the company's book value per share), is an indication of how much shareholders are paying for the net assets of a company
3. e the value of the company's stock. Here, we will discuss the price-to-book ratio, also known as the PB ratio, P/B ratio, or market-to-book ratio
4. Price to Book ratio is mostly used in financial services industries where assets and liabilities are typically represented by dollars. Although low Price to Book ratio generally implies that the firm is undervalued, it is often a good indicator that the company may be in financial or managerial distress and should be investigated more carefully
5. The meaning of a high price to book ratio can vary, but we feel the meaning of a low one can vary even wilder. This list is current as of Jan 2011. Be sure to read our disclaime
6. Another common valuation measure is the price/book ratio (P/B), which relates a stock's market value with its book value (also known as shareholder equity) from the latest balance sheet  Price to Earnings Ratio, Value to Book Ratio and Growth. 19 Pages Posted: 12 Feb 2013 Last revised: 26 May 2019. See all articles by Pablo price, book value, market value, PER, Price to Book. JEL Classification: G12, G31, M21. Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation. Fernandez, Pablo, Price to Earnings Ratio, Value to Book Ratio. The trend of Altria's price to book ratio looks completely opposite to the price to sales ratio plot. Between 2017 and 2021, Altria's price to book or equity ratio has been on a rise and reached a record high at more than 30X * AN INVESTOR WHO IS WILLING TO follow the value school of investing should consider eight factors in selecting securities (or mutual funds), including price-to-earnings ratio, price-to-cash flow ratio, price-to-book value ratio, dividend yield, private market value, adjusted net working capital, insider buying and stock repurchases Banks with a low price-to-book ratio have a greater propensity to pay out dividends. This propensity is especially marked for banks with a price-to-book ratio below a threshold of 0.7. As a sector, banks also tend to have higher dividend payout ratios than non-financial firms. We demonstrate these features using data for 271 advanced economy banks in 30 jurisdictions In this article, we study the trends in price-to-book (P/B) ratios for the country's biggest banks since 2011 in an attempt to understand whether the growth was due to tangible improvements in. We examine the structural properties of a firm's price-to-earnings (P/E) and price-to-book (P/B) ratios and the relation between these two ratios. A benchmark result is obtained under the hypothesis that firms use replacement cost accounting to value their operating assets, so that the P/B ratio coincides with Tobin's q. The firm's P/E ratio can then be expressed as a convex combination.

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